Boris *Tokin ( @n. Boris *Tokyn ; . *B 21 of of July of 1900 , *Kricev - . D 16 of of September of 1984 ) - Soviet biologist, professor of the University of *Tomsk after the war - a professor of the State University of *Leningrado , Doctor in Biological Sciences, founder of the department of embryology ( 1949 ) *LSU, hero of the Socialist Work ( 1971 ), Scientist of Honour of the *RSFSR , winner of the Prize Stalin ( 1950), president of the Society of Naturalistic of *Leningrado from 1966 until 1984 , the creator of the theory of the *fitoncidios .
In 1930 it graduated of the State University of Moscow . In the decade of 1930 - Director of the State Institute of Biology. *KA *Timiryazev. In June of 1936 , *Tokin was appointed rector of the State University of *Tomsk , in November of 1937 was *destituido of this charge, with the exception of the *PCUS (*b) , arrested in February of 1938 . A year afterwards was freed and rehabilitated.
From March of 1939 worked in the Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology of the State University of *Tomsk. In 1941 , it initiated the creation of the Committee of scientists of *Tomsk, that joined to the personnel of the university for the scientific investigation in support of the army.
Of 1945 to 1955 - member of the Institute of Experimental Medicine (*VIEM), professor and Boss of the Department of Embryology, Lsu.en 1950 , turned into the winner of the Prize Stalin .It participated in conflicts with *genetistas. At the beginning of the 1950 years *Tokin asked to the CC *VKP (*b) of the letter, that informed that the secretary *logia *masónica Jewish Professor *VY *Alexandrov final of the 40 created in said group *sionista *Viem, that includes to the director of the Institute *DN *Nasonov, the professor *P. G. *Svetlov, *AA Brown, To.D. Brown and others académicos.de 1966 to 1984 - President of the Society of Naturalistic of *Leningrado.
He died in 1984 .
In 1928 ,*Tokin coined the volatile "term" (of the Greek. Φυτόν - Plants and America. *Caedo - Kill) for toxic volatile substances some plants that have properties *antibacterianas (*bactericidas vegetal). *Tokin Noticed that the dishes of "oriental kitchen", cooked in the *bazares in conditions, no always fulfilled with the requirements of *saneamiento, did not cause shoots of intestinal infections. It discovered that the vegetal products used in the preparation of these dishes like spices, protect them of the damage and the people, of the illnesses infecciosas.en 1942 published "*Medgiz" brochure published *Tokin, where the author describes experiments on the antimicrobic activity of garlic and onion in *gachas of microorganisms. During the war *germano-Soviet , the shortage of medicines, *Tokin recommends the *papilla use, the aqueous solutions of the juices of fabric and infusion of water of the external scales (20 g by 200 *ml of water) onion and the garlic in the treatment of wounds infected and intestinal illnesses. *Tokin Argued that under the influence of volatile kill no only the bacteria, but also microscopic funguses and protozoons. This offer of *Tokin was widely used in hospitals during the years of the war.
Created jointly with his wife Brief G.P. doctrine of the *embriogénesis *somática: the development of a new individual from cells *somáticas in reply to the reactions of the animals. In 1977 , the authors published the methodological work "Embryology and genetic" .In the decade of 1930 , like opponent of Or. *B. *Lepeshinskaya, at the same time, advanced the notion of *ontogénesis cellular like his development between two divisions.
*BIOCHEMISTRY / *BIOQUIMICA
"SCIENCE THAT STUDIES THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE LIVING BEINGS"
The biochemical is a branch of the science that studies the chemical composition *delos living beingsEspecially the proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids, in addition to other small present molecules in the cells and the chemical reactions that suffer these compounds (metabolism) that allow them obtain energy (catabolism) and generate *biomoléculas own(*anabolismo).
The biochemistry bases in the concept that all living being contains carbon and in general the biological molecules are composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur.
It is the science that studies the chemical base of the molecules that compose some cells and the fabrics, that catalization the chemical reactions of the cellular metabolism like the digestion, the photosynthesis and the immunity, between other a lot of things.
We can understand the biochemistry like a scientific discipline integrat that tackles the study of the *biomoléculas and *biosystems.
It integrates of this form the chemical laws-physical and the biological evolution that affect to the biosistems and to his components. It does it from a molecular and treats to understand and apply his knowledge to wide sectors of the medicine (genetic therapy and biomedicine), the agroalimentation, the pharmacology.
It constitutes a fundamental pillar of the biotechnology, and has consolidated like an essential discipline to tackle the big problems and current illnesses and of the future, such as the climatic change, the shortage of resources agroalimentaries in front of the increase of world-wide population, the exhaustion of the reservations of fuels fossils, the apparition of new allergies, the increase of the cancer, the genetic illnesses,the obesity, etc.
The biochemical is an experimental science and thus it will resort to the use numerous own instrumental technicians and of other fields, but the base of his development splits of the fact of *quelo that occurs live to level subcelularse keeps or conserves after the fractionation subcelular, and from here, can study it.
PHYTONCIDES | FITONCIDAS |PHYTONCIDE |FITONCIDIOS DEFINITION:
"The *fitoncidios are compound organic volatile aleloquimics antimicrobic derived of plants. The word, that means "exterminated by the plant", was coined in 1928 by the Dr. Boris P. Tokin, a Russian biochemist of the University of *Leningrado. It discovered that some plants issue substances very active that prevent them rot or be devoured by some insects and animal.".
The leaves, the grasses and until the giants of the forest - the trees, having survived to his time, disappear, turning into part of the same floor that once gave them life. This is the eternal law of the nature. Without floor, the animals, leaves fallen, needles, branches would decompose five times more slowly, converting the whole world in a *basurero dirty.
*fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDESSmall inhabitants of the earth: a big strength. Usually we forget us of them, although the myriad of invisible creatures always are to our side. Even it is difficult to imagine that in a pinch of earth that weighs a gram, live one million and half of organisms. In a hectare of arable floors of several types, live of 600 kilograms to 5 tonnes of microbes. There is innumerable bacteria to our around. Some of the microorganisms are human assistants, others - spoil the fruits of his work, and other enemies, causing illnesses.
The animals have a system of protection quite complex and subtle, that protects them of the invasion of microbes. And how they are protected the plants? After all, also they see affected by illnesses virals, *fungics and of another type. If some plants no sick, then can protect. A lot of studies have showed in the time that some plants have antimicrobic properties.
The *Cerveceros knew that the *lupuls added to the itinerant mass did not allow the development of the microflors putrefaction. The ajenjo, the *orégan common, has the same properties. The estragon, the ordinary thyme has by east motivate properties preservatives.
A lot of studies annotated that the plants, his fabrics or special volatile fractions are able to kill a lot of microorganisms and some protozoons. The Soviet scientist Boris Petrovich Tokin revealed this mystery . It called the attention on the fact that the infusorious, that were in a cup, where there was a pap of onion, all perished. The scientist repeated the experiments one and again. Of the *gachas of onion and garlic, the pathogenic bacteria died. Volatile substances of vegetal origin, that so ruthdlessly treated with microorganisms, called B. Tokin The production of volatile (of the Greek word "phyto" - plant, of the Latin "tsido" - kill):*fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES, are the strengths of protection for the organisms of the plants and are volatile substances. The aerial parts of the plants excrete *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES in the atmosphere, the subterranean parts in the floor and the parts of water in the water. The quantity of these substances varies according to the season, the physiological state of the plant, the floor and the climate. The majority of them, in the moment of the flowering.
The studies have showed that the phenomenon is inherent to all the vegetal world. Only self-evident of different ways. Some of the *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES are volatile, able to act to distance, others form in the juice of the fabrics in the moment of the damage to the cellular membranes.
The *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES, can be excreted and the intact leaves, although no all the plants. For example, if a drop goes in in the leaf of an oak or birch, in which they find alive ciliates, die after a time. In the leaf of the worms and the lindens, delete the germs of *Staphylococcus *aureus. The fastest destruction of microbes (in 3 hours) leaves *álamo and birch.
If it explains all the vast area of green surface of our forests and fields, and take into account that the leaves damaged are constantly and in big number, is possible to understand why, with all the exclusive capacity to breed microbes can not allow the luxury to flood all the planet.
According to the scientific studies, all the plants in group free annually around 490 million tonnes of volatile substances to the atmosphere. With the air inhale them, assimilate the body, disinfect the lungs.
The culprits are *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES, his impact is very strong. If the leaves cut of the cherry of bird put under one covers of glass and put a fly or a mouse there, after a time the animals will die. The *phytoncids of the cherry of bird kill even to rats. The inhabitants of the *Cáucaso know well that sleep under a *nogal does not be worthwhile: the dream will be bad, and the next day the head will hurt them. The *fitoncidas of the leaves of *nogal frighten off to the flies, the mosquitos and other insects.
The *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES volatile of the green belt present a strong barrier against the pathogenic microbes. Have the capacity to kill bacteria to distance. Besides, in the plants exist substances *bactericidas no volatile , his second line of defence. The needles of pine of pine, fir, *enebro, *álamo, oak, birch and many other plants have properties *bactericidas.
Our plants of interior, such geraniums and *begonias, reduce the microorganisms contained in the air acclimatise to 43%, *tsiperus - 59%, chrysanthemum - in 66%. *Repercute In the fact that there is a lot of less flies, mosquitos and many less microbes.
The pine belongs to one of the plants *phytoncid more popular . When they take samples of the surface of the floor and of one some depth or of the air in several forests - forests of oak and birches, forests of pines - there are several types of microorganisms everywhere, but many are diferentes.la hectare of deciduous forest in the summer frees 2 kilograms of *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES volatile, coniferous - 5 and *enebro - 30 kilograms. This quantity is sufficient to kill to all the microbes in a city of average size. Therefore, quantities so different. In the air of a forest of pines are 10 times less than in a forest of birches. Although the birch fulfils very conscientiously the duties of an environmental order: it clears *despiadadamente the microorganisms that carry the wind to the forest of birches.
In the plantations where grows the birch *verrugoso, in a cubic metre of air only there is some 450 microbes. And in the operating theatres, where everything, included the air, has to be barren, the content in the cubic metre of air of 500 no permeable microorganisms is allowed according to the norms existentes.el air of the forests is pure. No without reason, a lot of sanatoriums and hospitals are built in forests. The *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES of these trees, by general rule, increase the defences of the body: the air of the forest it *tonifica. The boys that have lived at least some years in a rich zone in forests, are less liable to the colds.
Practically all the species that are part of the forest, have antimicrobic properties. The conifers *lidian *despiadadamente with the *microflora harmful. They excrete *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES roughly six times more than other conifers, and fifteen times more than the caducous leaves. The coniferous are very sensitive to the pollution of the air by industrial wastes: in a lot of cities practically has disappeared. And the *enebros grow slowly, in the majority of the species there is not renewal of seeds because of diverse disorders.
The centenarian trees are a powerful barrier for the way of several bacteria. The *arce, as they show it the studies of biochemists, no only has a high activity *fitonticida, but it also is able to absorb hurtful substances for the humans, for example, the *benceno.All this speaks on the value of healing of the forests like ecosystems. The joy that finds a human being in the forest in the spring, in a meadow in bloom, where the air full with the aroma of the volatile broadcasts of the plants, the *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES.
The scientific studies arrive to the conclusion that the volatile substances (*fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES), that penetrate through the lungs and the skin in the human body, kill and inhibit the development of pathogenic microbes, protect it of illnesses *infecciosas and embalm the fabrics. The *fitoncidios normalise the heart rate and the arterial pressure, participate actively in the metabolism and have a positive effect in the human brain.The people that live in forest areas are much less susceptible to the illnesses of the upper respiratory tract in comparison with the urban residents. The enormous value of the green zones and the plantations intracity is enormous. And no only because the plants issue oxygen, because they also issue *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES.
A green barrier to improve the air. The leaves of the plants with the action of the solar light on them of some length issue electrons that ionise the surrounding air. The air ionised has a beneficial effect in the health of a person.
Of big importance is the degree of ionisation of the oxygen of the air, that determines his biological activity. The greater healing is the air of the mountains. There in a cubic centimetre of air there is 20 one thousand negative ions. In the industrial cities, in cluttered venues, his concentration varies between 100 and 500.
In the current period of the increasing mechanisation of the man his greater part of the time realises it home, deprive of the air *curativo of forests and fields, rich in substances biologically active of the plant and the negative ions of light, that keep in the normal operation *in *vitro of the body, cause deficit in our organism of balance esencial.el @cuidar of the green zones of our cities and villages by means of the plantation of around the houses and in the streets of the trees and bushes, lawn, group of flowers, gardens and parks, the crop of plants in flowerpot, benefits to the health of the human being.
"THE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MICROBIAL" (*MVOC/*COVM) *PHYTONCIDES "THE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS" (*COV/*VOC)
The volatile organic compounds microbial (*MVOC) *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES
Are produced by a wide range of microorganisms that go from bacteria until funguses. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the *MVOC are respectful with the environment and can explode like a profitable sustainable strategy for his use in the agricultural practice like agents that improve the growth of the plants, the productivity and the resistance to the illnesses.
The volatile organic compounds microbial (*MVOC) *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES, are produced by a wide range of microorganisms that go from bacteria until funguses. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the *MVOC are respectful with the environment and can explode like a profitable sustainable strategy for his use in the agricultural practice like agents that improve the growth of the plants, the productivity and the resistance to the illnesses. Like natural chemical products, the *MVOC have potential like possible alternatives to the *pesticidas, *fungicidas and *bactericidas harmful, as well as to the genetic modification. Recent studies realised under conditions of open field show that the efficient adoption of *MVOC can contribute to the production and sustainable protection of crops. We review here the chemical diversity of the *MVOC when describing the microbial plants and the microbial interactions-microbial. Besides, we argue the paper of the *MVOC in the induction of answers of plants *fenotípicas and his possible physiological effects in the crops. Finally, we analyse the potential and real limitations for the use and deployment of *MVOC in conditions of field like a sustainable strategy to improve the productivity and reduce the use of *pesticidas.
The Volatile Organic Compounds (*COV) *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES, typically present like a complex mix of compound *lipófilos of low molecular weight derived of different roads *biosintéticas. To describe his complexity, recently has proposed the term "*volatilome" (*Maffei et al., 2011). In the nature, the volatile organic compounds *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES are responsible of the communication *inter and *intraorgánica and participate in innumerable interactions between plants, antagonistic and *simbiontes mutualistic, so much underneath as above the floor (*Maffei, 2010; *Maffei et al., 2011; *Garbeva et al., 2014*b). ; *Lemfack Et al., 2014; *Kanchiswamy et al., 2015).
The Volatile Organic Compounds *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES can travel far of the point of production through the atmosphere, porous floors and liquids, turning them into ideal chemicals to mediate interactions *intercelulares and organismic of short and long distance (*Maffei et al., 2011). In the past, loaned less attention to the volatile of the microorganisms regarding the *VOC of species of the plant and the animal realm (Stahl and *Parkin, 1996; *Schulz and *Dickschat, 2007; *Korpi et al., 2009; *Effmert et al., 2012; *Junker and *Tholl, 2013; *Weisskopf, 2013; *Penuelas et al., 2014).
The distribution *cosmopolita of microorganisms creates a context for frequent biotic answers and frequently ignored to the microbial broadcasts. In some ecosystems, the broadcasts *bacterianas or *fúngicas also can cause biotic aggregations and, often, an only microorganism or broadcast can have different effects on the behaviour of the *biota, especially between species, ontogenies and habitats (Davis et al., 2013). These interactions generate a *coevolución, whose process between the *biota -included virus, funguses, bacteria, plants, nematodes, insects and mammalian- is considered by a lot of biologists like which has generated big part of the biological diversity of the Earth (*Occhipinti, 2013).
The volatile organic compounds microbial (*MVOC) are a type of *COV *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES produced by all the microorganisms like part of his normal metabolism. They serve like chemical windows through which frees the fundamental information on the molecular base of the microbial activities (*Liang et al., 2008, *Korpi et al., 2009, *Thorn and *Greenman, 2012). It seems to have a base *multipartita for the answers of the organisms to the *MVOC, and the interactions *tróficas complex can result of the production of *MVOC. Besides, the *MVOC specific for species also can serve as compound markers for the selective detection of species *fúngicas and *bacterianas in the environment (*Fiedler et al., 2001). However, they can occur other transformations in the processes of detoxication (*Marmulla and *Harder, 2014). Many of the *MVOCs formed are produced by microorganisms of the floor, and would be a challenge investigate the microbial communities of the floor by means of the study of his profile *MVOC (*Insam and *Seewald, 2010). To date, they described *cientos of bacteria and funguses like producers of *MVOC in the floor (*Effmert et al., 2012).
The comparative analysis of experimental data has showed that the volatile metabolites *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES contribute much more to the microbial interactions that the no volatile. It has found that the interaction of microorganisms through the volatile that free occurs with frequency and is typical of a quantity of microorganisms (*Tirranen and *Gitelson, 2006). The understanding of the *MVOC, as well as the ideas on the molecular bases associated with the *MVOC, can provide capacities in the real world for a better control and utilisation of microorganisms (*Liang et al., 2008). The systematic exploration of the *MVOC and the characterisation of his biological and ecological functions probably discover new mechanisms to control diverse biological factors.