PHYTONCIDES BIOCHEMISTRY ©

"THE SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION ON THE PHYTONCIDES "

BORIS PETROVICH TOKIN

*PHYTONCIDE, *PHYTONCIDES, *FITONCIDAS Or *FITONCIDIOS IS THE WORD, THAT MEANS: "EXTERMINATED BY THE PLANT" , WAS COINED IN 1928 BY THE Dr. BORIS P. TOKIN, A RUSSIAN BIOCHEMIST OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LENINGRADO

PHYTONCIDES FITONCIDAS

THE SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION ON THE PHYTONCIDES WITH THE SCIENCE OF THE BIOCHEMISTRY

 
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OUR HISTORY

(*Since 2006)

"PHYTONCIDES BIOCHEMISTRY © CREATED IN THE YEAR 2006 WITH THE AIM IN THE SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION ON THE PHYTONCIDES " THE RESEARCH SCIENTIFIC ON THE *PHYTONCIDES Or *FITONCIDAS /*FITONCIDIOS Our aim is the rigour and our pride, the application of the result of our investigations, in the health of the human being. *PHYTONCIDES *BIOCHEMISTRY©

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BORIS PETROVICH TOKIN

*PHYTONCIDE, *PHYTONCIDES, *FITONCIDAS Or *FITONCIDIOS

It IS THE WORD, THAT MEANS: "EXTERMINATED BY THE PLANT"

It WAS COINED IN 1937 BY THE Dr. BORIS *P. *TOKIN

A RUSSIAN BIOCHEMIST OF THE UNIVERSITY OF *LENINGRADO

                                        Boris Petrovich Tokin (Токин, Борис Петрович, 21 July 1900 - *Leningrado, 16 September 1984) known for coining the term *fitoncidios and promote and systematise his use.  President of the Society of Materialist Biologists wrote articles that integrate the works of Charles Darwin with Marx and *Engels

*September 22, 2007

BIOGRAPHY /*BIOGRAPHY

"BORIS *PETROVICH *TOKIN "

Boris *Tokin ( @n.  Boris *Tokyn ; . *B 21 of of July of 1900 , *Kricev  - . D 16 of of September of 1984 ) - Soviet biologist, professor of the University of *Tomsk after the war - a professor of the State University of *Leningrado , Doctor in Biological Sciences, founder of the department of embryology ( 1949 ) *LSU, hero of the Socialist Work ( 1971 ), Scientist of Honour of the *RSFSR , winner of the Prize Stalin ( 1950), president of the Society of Naturalistic of *Leningrado from 1966 until 1984 , the creator of the theory of the *fitoncidios .

In 1930 it graduated  of the State University of Moscow . In the decade of 1930 - Director of the State Institute of Biology. *KA *Timiryazev. In June of 1936 , *Tokin was appointed rector of the State University of *Tomsk , in November of 1937 was *destituido of this charge, with the exception of the *PCUS (*b) , arrested in February of 1938 . A year afterwards was freed and rehabilitated.

From March of 1939 worked in the Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology of the State University of *Tomsk. In 1941 , it initiated the creation of the Committee of scientists of *Tomsk, that joined to the personnel of the university for the scientific investigation in support of the army.

Of 1945 to 1955 - member of the Institute of Experimental Medicine (*VIEM), professor and Boss of the Department of Embryology, Lsu.en 1950 , turned into the winner of the Prize Stalin .It participated in conflicts with *genetistas. At the beginning of the 1950 years *Tokin asked to the CC *VKP (*b) of the letter, that informed that the secretary *logia *masónica Jewish Professor *VY *Alexandrov final of the 40 created in said group *sionista *Viem, that includes to the director of the Institute *DN *Nasonov, the professor *P. G. *Svetlov, *AA Brown, To.D. Brown and others académicos.de 1966 to 1984 - President of the Society of Naturalistic of *Leningrado.

He died in 1984 .

In 1928 ,*Tokin coined the volatile "term" (of the Greek. Φυτόν  - Plants and America. *Caedo - Kill) for toxic volatile substances some plants that have properties *antibacterianas (*bactericidas vegetal). *Tokin Noticed that the dishes of "oriental kitchen", cooked in the *bazares in conditions, no always fulfilled with the requirements of *saneamiento, did not cause shoots of intestinal infections. It discovered that the vegetal products used in the preparation of these dishes like spices, protect them of the damage and the people, of the illnesses infecciosas.en 1942 published "*Medgiz" brochure published *Tokin, where the author describes experiments on the antimicrobic activity of garlic and onion in *gachas of microorganisms. During the war *germano-Soviet , the shortage of medicines, *Tokin recommends the *papilla use, the aqueous solutions of the juices of fabric and infusion of water of the external scales (20 g by 200 *ml of water) onion and the garlic in the treatment of wounds infected and intestinal illnesses. *Tokin Argued that under the influence of volatile kill no only the bacteria, but also microscopic funguses and protozoons. This offer of *Tokin was widely used in hospitals during the years of the war.

Created jointly with his wife Brief G.P. doctrine of the *embriogénesis *somática: the development of a new individual from cells *somáticas in reply to the reactions of the animals. In 1977 , the authors published the methodological work "Embryology and genetic" .In the decade of 1930 , like opponent of Or. *B. *Lepeshinskaya, at the same time, advanced the notion of *ontogénesis cellular like his development between two divisions.

*BIOCHEMISTRY / *BIOQUIMICA

"SCIENCE THAT STUDIES THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE LIVING BEINGS"


The biochemical is a branch of the science that studies the chemical composition *delos living beings
Especially the proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids, in addition to other small present molecules in the cells and the chemical reactions that suffer these compounds (metabolism) that allow them obtain energy (catabolism) and generate *biomoléculas own(*anabolismo).

The biochemistry bases in the concept that all living being contains carbon and in general the biological molecules are composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur. It is the science that studies the chemical base of the molecules that compose some cells and the fabrics, that catalization the chemical reactions of the cellular metabolism like the digestion, the photosynthesis and the immunity, between other a lot of things.
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
We can understand the biochemistry like a scientific discipline integrat that tackles the study of the *biomoléculas and *biosystems.
It integrates of this form the chemical laws-physical and the biological evolution that affect to the biosistems and to his components. It does it from a molecular and treats to understand and apply his knowledge to wide sectors of the medicine (genetic therapy and biomedicine), the agroalimentation, the pharmacology.
It constitutes a fundamental pillar of the biotechnology, and has consolidated like an essential discipline to tackle the big problems and current illnesses and of the future, such as the climatic change, the shortage of resources agroalimentaries in front of the increase of world-wide population, the exhaustion of the reservations of fuels fossils, the apparition of new allergies, the increase of the cancer, the genetic illnesses,the obesity, etc.
The biochemical is an experimental science and thus it will resort to the use numerous own instrumental technicians and of other fields, but the base of his development splits of the fact of *quelo that occurs live to level subcelularse keeps or conserves after the fractionation subcelular, and from here, can study it.

PHYTONCIDES | FITONCIDAS |PHYTONCIDE |FITONCIDIOS DEFINITION:

                                                   

"The *fitoncidios are compound organic volatile aleloquimics antimicrobic derived of plants. The word, that means "exterminated by the plant", was coined in 1928 by the Dr. Boris P. Tokin, a Russian biochemist of the University of *Leningrado. It discovered that some plants issue substances very active that prevent them rot or be devoured by some insects and animal.".

                                             
April 18, 2007

*PHYTONCIDES *FITONCIDAS DEFINITION
*PITONZIDE

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

The leaves, the grasses and until the giants of the forest - the trees, having survived to his time, disappear, turning into part of the same floor that once gave them life. This is the eternal law of the nature. Without floor, the animals, leaves fallen, needles, branches would decompose five times more slowly, converting the whole world in a *basurero dirty.

*fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES

Small inhabitants of the earth: a big strength. Usually we forget us of them, although the myriad of invisible creatures always are to our side. Even it is difficult to imagine that in a pinch of earth that weighs a gram, live one million and half of organisms. In a hectare of arable floors of several types, live of 600 kilograms to 5 tonnes of microbes. There is innumerable bacteria to our around. Some of the microorganisms are human assistants, others - spoil the fruits of his work, and other enemies, causing illnesses.
The animals have a system of protection quite complex and subtle, that protects them of the invasion of microbes. And how they are protected the plants? After all, also they see affected by illnesses virals, *fungics and of another type. If some plants no sick, then can protect. A lot of studies have showed in the time that some plants have antimicrobic properties.
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
The *Cerveceros knew that the *lupuls added to the itinerant mass did not allow the development of the microflors putrefaction. The ajenjo, the *orégan common, has the same properties. The estragon, the ordinary thyme has by east motivate properties preservatives.
A lot of studies annotated that the plants, his fabrics or special volatile fractions are able to kill a lot of microorganisms and some protozoons. The Soviet scientist Boris Petrovich Tokin revealed this mystery . It called the attention on the fact that the infusorious, that were in a cup, where there was a pap of onion, all perished. The scientist repeated the experiments one and again. Of the *gachas of onion and garlic, the pathogenic bacteria died. Volatile substances of vegetal origin, that so ruthdlessly treated with microorganisms, called B. Tokin The production of volatile (of the Greek word "phyto" - plant, of the Latin "tsido" - kill):*fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES, are the strengths of protection for the organisms of the plants and are volatile substances. The aerial parts of the plants excrete *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES in the atmosphere, the subterranean parts in the floor and the parts of water in the water. The quantity of these substances varies according to the season, the physiological state of the plant, the floor and the climate. The majority of them, in the moment of the flowering. 

The studies have showed that the phenomenon is inherent to all the vegetal world. Only self-evident of different ways. Some of the *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES are volatile, able to act to distance, others form in the juice of the fabrics in the moment of the damage to the cellular membranes.
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
The *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES, can be excreted and the intact leaves, although no all the plants. For example, if a drop goes in in the leaf of an oak or birch, in which they find alive ciliates, die after a time. In the leaf of the worms and the lindens, delete the germs of *Staphylococcus *aureus. The fastest destruction of microbes (in 3 hours) leaves *álamo and birch.

If it explains all the vast area of green surface of our forests and fields, and take into account that the leaves damaged are constantly and in big number, is possible to understand why, with all the exclusive capacity to breed microbes can not allow the luxury to flood all the planet.
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
According to the scientific studies, all the plants in group free annually around 490 million tonnes of volatile substances to the atmosphere. With the air inhale them, assimilate the body, disinfect the lungs.

The culprits are *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES, his impact is very strong. If the leaves cut of the cherry of bird put under one covers of glass and put a fly or a mouse there, after a time the animals will die. The *phytoncids of the cherry of bird kill even to rats. The inhabitants of the *Cáucaso know well that sleep under a *nogal does not be worthwhile: the dream will be bad, and the next day the head will hurt them. The *fitoncidas of the leaves of *nogal frighten off to the flies, the mosquitos and other insects.
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
The *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES volatile of the green belt present a strong barrier against the pathogenic microbes. Have the capacity to kill bacteria to distance. Besides, in the plants exist substances *bactericidas no volatile , his second line of defence. The needles of pine of pine, fir, *enebro, *álamo, oak, birch and many other plants have properties *bactericidas. 

Our plants of interior, such geraniums and *begonias, reduce the microorganisms contained in the air acclimatise to 43%, *tsiperus - 59%, chrysanthemum - in 66%. *Repercute In the fact that there is a lot of less flies, mosquitos and many less microbes.
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
The pine belongs to one of the plants *phytoncid more popular . When they take samples of the surface of the floor and of one some depth or of the air in several forests - forests of oak and birches, forests of pines - there are several types of microorganisms everywhere, but many are diferentes.la hectare of deciduous forest in the summer frees 2 kilograms of *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES volatile, coniferous - 5 and *enebro - 30 kilograms. This quantity is sufficient to kill to all the microbes in a city of average size. Therefore, quantities so different. In the air of a forest of pines are 10 times less than in a forest of birches. Although the birch fulfils very conscientiously the duties of an environmental order: it clears *despiadadamente the microorganisms that carry the wind to the forest of birches.
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
In the plantations where grows the birch *verrugoso, in a cubic metre of air only there is some 450 microbes. And in the operating theatres, where everything, included the air, has to be barren, the content in the cubic metre of air of 500 no permeable microorganisms is allowed according to the norms existentes.el air of the forests is pure. No without reason, a lot of sanatoriums and hospitals are built in forests. The *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES of these trees, by general rule, increase the defences of the body: the air of the forest it *tonifica. The boys that have lived at least some years in a rich zone in forests, are less liable to the colds.
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
Practically all the species that are part of the forest, have antimicrobic properties. The conifers *lidian *despiadadamente with the *microflora harmful. They excrete *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES roughly six times more than other conifers, and fifteen times more than the caducous leaves. The coniferous are very sensitive to the pollution of the air by industrial wastes: in a lot of cities practically has disappeared. And the *enebros grow slowly, in the majority of the species there is not renewal of seeds because of diverse disorders.

The centenarian trees are a powerful barrier for the way of several bacteria. The *arce, as they show it the studies of biochemists, no only has a high activity *fitonticida, but it also is able to absorb hurtful substances for the humans, for example, the *benceno.All this speaks on the value of healing of the forests like ecosystems. The joy that finds a human being in the forest in the spring, in a meadow in bloom, where the air full with the aroma of the volatile broadcasts of the plants, the *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES. Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
The scientific studies arrive to the conclusion that the volatile substances (*fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES), that penetrate through the lungs and the skin in the human body, kill and inhibit the development of pathogenic microbes, protect it of illnesses *infecciosas and embalm the fabrics. The *fitoncidios normalise the heart rate and the arterial pressure, participate actively in the metabolism and have a positive effect in the human brain.The people that live in forest areas are much less susceptible to the illnesses of the upper respiratory tract in comparison with the urban residents. The enormous value of the green zones and the plantations intracity is enormous. And no only because the plants issue oxygen, because they also issue *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES.

A green barrier to improve the air. The leaves of the plants with the action of the solar light on them of some length issue electrons that ionise the surrounding air. The air ionised has a beneficial effect in the health of a person.
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
Of big importance is the degree of ionisation of the oxygen of the air, that determines his biological activity. The greater healing is the air of the mountains. There in a cubic centimetre of air there is 20 one thousand negative ions. In the industrial cities, in cluttered venues, his concentration varies between 100 and 500.

In the current period of the increasing mechanisation of the man his greater part of the time realises it home, deprive of the air *curativo of forests and fields, rich in substances biologically active of the plant and the negative ions of light, that keep in the normal operation *in *vitro of the body, cause deficit in our organism of balance esencial.el @cuidar of the green zones of our cities and villages by means of the plantation of around the houses and in the streets of the trees and bushes, lawn, group of flowers, gardens and parks, the crop of plants in flowerpot, benefits to the health of the human being.

"THE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MICROBIAL" (*MVOC/*COVM) *PHYTONCIDES "THE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS" (*COV/*VOC)

The volatile organic compounds microbial (*MVOC) *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES


Are produced by a wide range of microorganisms that go from bacteria until funguses. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the *MVOC are respectful with the environment and can explode like a profitable sustainable strategy for his use in the agricultural practice like agents that improve the growth of the plants, the productivity and the resistance to the illnesses.
April 14, 2007

*Phytonzide "The volatile organic compounds microbial" (*MVOC)
*PHYTONCIDES "The Volatile Organic Compounds" (*COV)
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Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
The volatile organic compounds microbial (*MVOC) *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES, are produced by a wide range of microorganisms that go from bacteria until funguses. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the *MVOC are respectful with the environment and can explode like a profitable sustainable strategy for his use in the agricultural practice like agents that improve the growth of the plants, the productivity and the resistance to the illnesses. Like natural chemical products, the *MVOC have potential like possible alternatives to the *pesticidas, *fungicidas and *bactericidas harmful, as well as to the genetic modification. Recent studies realised under conditions of open field show that the efficient adoption of *MVOC can contribute to the production and sustainable protection of crops. We review here the chemical diversity of the *MVOC when describing the microbial plants and the microbial interactions-microbial. Besides, we argue the paper of the *MVOC in the induction of answers of plants *fenotípicas and his possible physiological effects in the crops. Finally, we analyse the potential and real limitations for the use and deployment of *MVOC in conditions of field like a sustainable strategy to improve the productivity and reduce the use of *pesticidas.

The Volatile Organic Compounds (*COV) *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES, typically present like a complex mix of compound *lipófilos of low molecular weight derived of different roads *biosintéticas. To describe his complexity, recently has proposed the term "*volatilome" (*Maffei et al., 2011). In the nature, the volatile organic compounds *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES are responsible of the communication *inter and *intraorgánica and participate in innumerable interactions between plants, antagonistic and *simbiontes mutualistic, so much underneath as above the floor (*Maffei, 2010; *Maffei et al., 2011; *Garbeva et al., 2014*b). ; *Lemfack Et al., 2014; *Kanchiswamy et al., 2015).
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
The Volatile Organic Compounds *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES can travel far of the point of production through the atmosphere, porous floors and liquids, turning them into ideal chemicals to mediate interactions *intercelulares and organismic of short and long distance (*Maffei et al., 2011). In the past, loaned less attention to the volatile of the microorganisms regarding the *VOC of species of the plant and the animal realm (Stahl and *Parkin, 1996; *Schulz and *Dickschat, 2007; *Korpi et al., 2009; *Effmert et al., 2012; *Junker and *Tholl, 2013; *Weisskopf, 2013; *Penuelas et al., 2014).
The distribution *cosmopolita of microorganisms creates a context for frequent biotic answers and frequently ignored to the microbial broadcasts. In some ecosystems, the broadcasts *bacterianas or *fúngicas also can cause biotic aggregations and, often, an only microorganism or broadcast can have different effects on the behaviour of the *biota, especially between species, ontogenies and habitats (Davis et al., 2013). These interactions generate a *coevolución, whose process between the *biota -included virus, funguses, bacteria, plants, nematodes, insects and mammalian- is considered by a lot of biologists like which has generated big part of the biological diversity of the Earth (*Occhipinti, 2013).
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
The volatile organic compounds microbial (*MVOC) are a type of *COV *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES produced by all the microorganisms like part of his normal metabolism. They serve like chemical windows through which frees the fundamental information on the molecular base of the microbial activities (*Liang et al., 2008, *Korpi et al., 2009, *Thorn and *Greenman, 2012). It seems to have a base *multipartita for the answers of the organisms to the *MVOC, and the interactions *tróficas complex can result of the production of *MVOC. Besides, the *MVOC specific for species also can serve as compound markers for the selective detection of species *fúngicas and *bacterianas in the environment (*Fiedler et al., 2001). However, they can occur other transformations in the processes of detoxication (*Marmulla and *Harder, 2014). Many of the *MVOCs formed are produced by microorganisms of the floor, and would be a challenge investigate the microbial communities of the floor by means of the study of his profile *MVOC (*Insam and *Seewald, 2010). To date, they described *cientos of bacteria and funguses like producers of *MVOC in the floor (*Effmert et al., 2012).
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
The comparative analysis of experimental data has showed that the volatile metabolites *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES contribute much more to the microbial interactions that the no volatile. It has found that the interaction of microorganisms through the volatile that free occurs with frequency and is typical of a quantity of microorganisms (*Tirranen and *Gitelson, 2006). The understanding of the *MVOC, as well as the ideas on the molecular bases associated with the *MVOC, can provide capacities in the real world for a better control and utilisation of microorganisms (*Liang et al., 2008). The systematic exploration of the *MVOC and the characterisation of his biological and ecological functions probably discover new mechanisms to control diverse biological factors.

*BIOCHEMISTRY *BIOQUIMICA

The biochemical is a branch of the science that studies the chemical composition of the living beings.
The biochemical is a branch of the science that studies the chemical composition *delos living beings, especially *lasproteínas, carbohydrates, lipids and *ácidosnucleicos, in addition to other *pequeñasmoléculas present in the cells and *lasreacciones chemical that suffer *estoscompuestos (metabolism) that *lespermiten obtain energy (catabolism) *ygenerar *biomoléculas own(*anabolismo).

The biochemistry bases *enel concept that all be *vivocontiene carbon and in general *lasmoléculas biological are *compuestasprincipalmente of carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and azufre.es the science that studies the base *químicade the molecules that compose *algunascélulas and the fabrics, that *catalizan *lasreacciones chemical of the *metabolismocelular like the digestion, the *fotosíntesisy the immunity, between other *muchascosas.
Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas
We can understand the biochemistry *comouna scientific discipline *integradora *queaborda the study of the *biomoléculas *ybiosistemas. It integrates of this form *lasleyes chemical-physical and the *evoluciónbiológica that affect to the *biosistemas already his components. It does it from *unpunto of molecular sight and treats *deentender and apply his knowledge to wide sectors of the medicine (*terapiagenética and biomedicine), *laagroalimentación, the pharmacology.

It constitutes a fundamental pillar of *labiotecnología, and has consolidated *comouna essential discipline to tackle *losgrandes problems and *enfermedadesactuales and of the future, such like *elcambio climatic, the shortage of *recursosagroalimentarios in front of the increase *depoblación world-wide, the exhaustion of *lasreservas of fuels fossils, *laaparición of new allergies, the *aumentodel cancer, the genetic illnesses,the obesity, etc.

The biochemical is a *cienciaexperimental and thus it will resort to the use *denumerosas technical *instrumentalespropias and of other fields, but the *basede his development splits of the fact of *quelo that occurs live to level *subcelularse keeps or conserves after *elfraccionamiento *subcelular, and to split *deahí, can study it.

CELLS / *PHYTONCIDES

Performance Bloodstream *Phytoncide *Fitoncidios *Fitoncidas

*PHYPHYTONCIDES *BIOCHEMISTRY *BIOQUIMICA

*PHYTONCIDES *FITONCIDAS DEFINITION

*Phytoncide, *fitoncida, *Phytoncides or *Fitoncidios

                             
*June 17, 2006

*PHYTONCIDES
*Phytoncide

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

*PHYTONCIDE/*PHYTONCIDES


This term has existed in the Investigation from does 81 tońyou, coined in 1937 by the Dr. Boris *P. *Tokin Benefit “*bacteriostático” of *phytoncide of onion in And. *coli. 1

DEFINITION: *PHYTONCIDE

According to an article, "*PhytoncideA volatile essential oil produced by plants and trees, has no only antimicrobic activity, but also an effect that relieves the stress".In fact, this same article, that finds in the magazine  *Fibers *and *Polymers , described an invention that aimed to take out *provecho of a method of release of *fitoncida freed in the time: "we Prepare a fibre *hilado in fusion type founds / core that frees *phytoncide by a time prolonged hour. The fibre is composed by one founds of *nylon and a material of core of *polipropileno (PP) ". 2

THE EFFECTS *RELAJANTES OF THE *PHYTONCIDES, *PHYTONCIDE, *FITONCIDIOS Or *FITONCIDAS EXPLORED IN RODENTS

Another article defined the *fitoncidios, "like the volatile organic compounds antimicrobic issued by the plants". In chemical terms, the main components of the *fitoncuro are closely related with the essential oils produced from plants ".This study really tested the effects of these components in mice and concluded that these volatile compounds, that find in the oil of Japanese fir, produce effects *relajantes and of relief of the stress in the rodents tested. Curiously, also it did it one of his components, the famous *monoterpeno,  *d-*limoneno :

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

The bathroom and the walk in the air of the forest (*shinrin-*yoku) is beneficial for the human health. In this study, the *fitoncidio (compound volatile) freed of the forest of plantation *Cryptomeria *japonica characterised by the use of *microextracción in solid phase (*SPME) and chromatography of gases-spectrometry of masses (*GC-*MS). The main composed volatile were to-*pineno (19.35%), *b-*mirceno (16.98%), D-*limoneno (15.21%) and g-*muuroleno (7.42%). Besides, the activity *neurofarmacológica of the essential oils of the leaves of C. *japonica (*ECJ) Evaluated by means of several proofs of animal behaviour. *ECJ Could prolong the phase of dream of the mice *ICR (region of control of impression) in the model of time of dream induced by *pentobarbital. Besides, so much *EJC like one of his *monoterpenos, D-*limoneno, possessed powerful activities *ansiolíticas and analgesic based in the results obtained of high proofs of labyrinth and *retorcimiento. The volatile compounds freed of C. *japonica Provide effects *relajantes and that relieve the stress in mice, and is worthwhile to realise more studies on the effect of the *fitoncidio in humans.3

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

A previous study also showed profits in the relief of the stress in rats. Specifically, it informed that the *fitoncidios can reduce the arterial pressure and the hormones of the stress in the creatures spontaneously *hipertensas liable to cerebral attacks (poor rodents):1. The *fitoncidios, *fitoncidas, *phytoncide or *PHYTONCIDES, are volatile substances that free mainly of the trees. We study if the *fitoncidios can reduce the answers to the stress in rats spontaneously *hipertensas liable to *ACV (*SHRSP). 2. Under the stress of restriction, the *SHRSP exposed to *fitoncidios showed a blood pressure minor that those without the exhibition (186.8 +/- 3.9 *vs 207.7 +/- 3.4 *mmHg, respectively, <*P 0.01 by the proof *t of *Student). 3. In accordance with the previous observation, the concentration *plasmática of *catecolaminas under the stress of restriction was minor in the group of *fitoncidios that in the group of control. 4. With base in these results, conclude that the *fitoncidios reduced the cardiovascular answer to the stress of restriction in *SHRSP. 4

THE IMMUNE ANSWER OF THE *FITNOCIDAS (*IN *VITRO)

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

A study *in *vitro looked for to determine if the profits of the "bathroom in the forest" on the immune function were related with the *fitoncidios (wooden essential oils).The researchers concluded that they improved significantly a type of activity of immune cells:The *fitoncidios increase significantly the activity *citolítica of the cells *NK-92MY of a dependent way of the dose and increase significantly the expression of *perforina, *granzima To and *granulisina in the cells *NK-92MY. The *fitoncidios also restore partially, but of significant way, the decrease of the activity of *NK human and the decrease of the expression of *perforina, *granzima To and *granulisina in cells *NK-92MY induced by *dimetil 2,2-*diclorovinil phosphate (*DDVP), a *pesticida *organofosforado. The *pretratamiento with *fitoncidios warns partially the inhibition induced by *DDVP of the activity of *NK. Taken in group, these data indicate that the *fitoncidios improve significantly the activity of *NK human and this effect is mediated at least partially by the induction of *perforina intracellular, *granzima To and *granulisina. 5

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

Another study showed the effects *inhibidores of antioxidants and microbes of these compounds:they examined the physiological activities of four types of solutions *fitoncídicas (types To, *AB, *CY and D), prepared from several widely distributed plants in the nature. We analyse these solutions of *fitoncidios, the proofs of inhibition of the active oxygen, the effects of elimination of radicals *DPPH, the inhibition of the monoxide of nitrogen and the inhibition of the peroxide of lipids. The types *AB and D of the solutions of *fitoncida showed especially antioxidant effects comparatively powerful. They realised essays *antibacterianos and *antifúngicos using the types *AB and D, and the results showed activities *inhibidoras significant with these solutions. 6

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

*PHYTONCIDES, *PHYTONCIDE, *FITONCIDAS Or *FITONCIDIOS IN THE HEALTH OF THE SKIN (*IN *VITRO)

A study *in  *vitro in cells of *fibroblastos human showed the protective effects against reactive species of oxygen with the use of *fitoncidios. 7Besides, another study  showed inhibitory effects of solutions of *fitoncidios in cells of human melanoma and of rodents.8

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

*PHYTONCIDES, *PHYTONCIDE, *FITONCIDAS Or *FITONCIDIOS And APPLICATIONS *MEDICAS

A study even suggested the use of *fitoncidas like an alternative to the medication in the *stents *liberadores of drugs for cardiovascular patients. This was due to the antioxidant "effects, antimicrobic and anti-inflammatories" of the *monoterpenoides:A *stent *liberador of drug (GIVE) is one of the technicians of treatment commonly used in the coronary intervention *percutánea (*ICP). *Sirolimus (*SRL) Has used widely for GIVE like a drug to suppress the hyperplasia *neointimal and cause *reestenosis. The *fitoncidios (*PTC) are compound freed of trees and plants, and his solutions contain *monoterpenoides like  a-*pinene, *careen and *myrceen. Some studies have informed that these components exhibit antioxidant activities, antimicrobic and *antiinflamatorias. Our hypothesis is that *PTC can turn into an alternative medicine to *SRL for GIVE, that shows secondary effects relieved in comparison with *SRL. It compared a *stent incorporated to *PTC with a *stent *SRL incorporated in terms of properties physical chemistries, *farmacocinéticas and biological. In studies *in *vitro, investigated the effects of each drug in the cells. The results showed that both drugs exhibited effects of *citotoxicidad, *antiinflamación and *antiproliferación similar. However, these effects were the result of different mechanisms associated with the cells, as it sees in the result of the *inmunofluorescencia. An essay *in alive showed that the area of the *lumen was significantly bigger and the area *neointimal was significantly smaller in the *stents loaded with *SRL and *PTC in comparison with a *stent downloaded of a drug. These results suggest that the *fitoncidio can be a feasible alternative drug for *SRL for the GIVE advanced, although they need more studies.9

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

This study originated in one previous that showed a trip of two nights to the natural cellular activity improved (*NK) of the forest and intracellular proteins against the cancer in the proofs of lymphocytes. Besides, it informed that the effect lasted 7 days after the trip. The inhabitants of the city in the group of control did not exhibit the same effect.

*PHYTONCIDES, *PHYTONCIDE, *FITONCIDAS Or *FITONCIDIOS IN STUDIES IN HUMANS

In the forest improved the human activity of *NK, the number of cells *NK and the intracellular proteins against the cancer in the lymphocytes. In the present study, investigate how much hard the increase of the activity *NK and compare the effect of a trip of bathroom in the forest on the activity *NK with a trip to places in a city without forests. Twelve masculine subjects healthy, of 35-56 years of age, were selected with consent informed. The subjects experienced a trip of three days / two nights to the forest fields and to a city, in which the levels of activity during both trips were equalised. The day 1, the subjects walked during two hours in the afternoon in a forest field; and the day 2, walked during two hours in the morning and in the afternoon, respectively, in two forest fields different; and in the day 3, took samples of blood and urinates the second and third day during the trips, and the days 7 and 30 after the trip, and the activity of *NK, numbers of cells *NK and *T, and *granulisina, *perforina and lymphocytes that express *granzimas To / *B in the samples of blood and the concentration of adrenaline in the urine measured . They realised similar measurements before the trips in a normal work day like the control.

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

They measured the concentrations of *Phytoncide in the air of the forest and of the city. The trip of bathroom in the forest increased significantly the activity of *NK and the number of cells that express *NK, *perforina, *granulisina and *granzima To / *B and diminished significantly the concentration of adrenaline in the urine. The increase of the activity of *NK lasted more than 7 days after the trip. By the contrary, a tourist visit of the city did not increase the activity *NK, the number of cells *NK, neither the expression of determinate intracellular proteins against the cancer, and did not diminish the concentration of adrenaline in the urine. The *fitoncidios, like alpha-*pineno and beta-*pineno, detected in the air of the forest, but almost no in the air of the city. These findings indicate that a trip of bathroom in the forest increased the activity of *NK, the number of cells *NK and the levels of intracellular proteins against the cancer, and that this effect lasted at least 7 days after the trip. The *fitoncidios freed of the trees and the decrease of the hormone of the stress can contribute partly to the increase of the activity of *NK. 11

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

A study of follow-up reproduced the conclusion of the previous study some years later, this time measuring *fitoncidas in the forest, included a *fitoncuro additional, the *isopreno. (It remember, the units of *isopreno constitute constituents of essential oils like *monoterpenos, *sesquiterpenos and *fenilpropenoides). The summary says (emphasis in bold mine):they did similar measurements before the trip in a day of weekend like the control. They measured the concentrations of *fitoncida in the forest. The trip of a day to the forest park increased significantly the activity of *NK and the numbers of cells *NK CD16 (+) and CD56 (+), *perforina, *granulisina and cells *NK that express *granzima To / *B and diminished significantly the cells *T CD4 (+). The concentrations of *cortisol in the blood and adrenaline in the urine. The increase of the activity *NK lasted 7 days after the trip. The *fitoncidios, like the *isopreno, alpha-*pineno and beta-*pineno, detected in the air of the forest. These findings indicate that the trip of a day to the forest park also increased the activity *NK, the number of cells *NK and the levels of intracellular proteins against the cancer, and that this effect lasted at least 7 days after the trip.. The *fitoncidios freed of the trees and the decrease of the levels of the hormone of the stress can contribute partly to the increase of the activity of *NK. 12Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

The forest surroundings improves the activity of the natural murderous cells (*NK), the number of cells *NK and the intracellular proteins against the cancer in the lymphocytes, and that the increase of the activity of *NK lasted more than 7 days after the trips to the forests so much in masculine and feminine subjects. To explore the factors in the forest surroundings that activated the cells *NK human, in the present study investigate the effect of the essential oils of the trees on the human immune function in twelve healthy subjects, of 37-60 years, that lodged in an urban hotel for 3 nights from the 7:00 p.m. until the 8:00 a.m. They produced aromatic volatile substances (*fitoncidas) by means of the vaporisation of the oil of cut of *Chamaecyparis obtuse (cypress *hinoki) with a *humidificador in the room of the hotel during the night. The samples of blood took the last day and the samples of urine analysed every day during the stay. It measured the activity of *NK, the percentages of cells *NK and *T, and *granulisina, *perforina, lymphocytes that express *granzima To / *B in blood and the concentrations of adrenaline and *noradrenalina in the urine. They realised measurements of similar control before the *estadía in a normal work day. They measured the concentrations of *fitoncidas in the air of the room of the hotel. The exhibition to *fitoncida increased significantly the activity of *NK and the percentages of cells that express *NK, *perforina, *granulisina and *granzima To / *B, and diminished significantly the percentage of cells *T and the concentrations of adrenaline and *noradrenalina in the urine. The *fitoncidios, like alpha-*pineno and beta-*pineno, detected in the air of the room of the hotel. These findings indicate that the exhibition to *fitoncidios and the decrease of the levels of the hormone of the stress can contribute partly to the increase of the activity of *NK. 13Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas

Another study showed a similar effect with a *fitoncida mixed with pine and cypress. Specifically, it found that this mix diminishes the arterial pressure and the *cortisol in 60 university students. (Note: the group of control was not equivalent):

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of the *fitoncidios in the level of *cortisol *sérico, the vital signs and the vital stress of the university students. METHODS: This study was a no synchronised design of the group of control no equivalent. The subjects consisted in 60 (group of control: 28, experimental group: 32). The *fitoncidas mixed the oil of pine (*pinus *sylvestris) with the oil of cypress (*cupressus *sempervirens) in the same proportion. In the experiment, placed in a *frasco of aroma and inhaled 3 times to the day (9 *am, to the midday, before putting to bed ) during 2 weeks. The data were analysed by the program *SPSS version 12.0. RESULTS: In the experimental group, the *PA *sistólica (*F = 15.603, *p = .000), the *PA *diastólica (*F = 29.489, *p = .000) and the level *sérico of *cortisol (*F = 4.968, *p = .000) they diminished significantly. CONCLUSION: The inhalation of *fitoncidios is partly a help to reduce the stress of the life of the university students. The *phytoncides is the incense of the familiar tree. We recommend to examine the differences between the green shower and the inhalation of *fitoncidios for the reduction of the stress.

Phytonzide Phytoncides fitoncidios, fitoncidas, phytoncide o PHYTONCIDES Fitoncidas*REFERENCIASVrba, M. Morphological changes of cells of *Escherichia *coli caused by a *fitoncida of the onion.  *Folia *Microbiologica. June of 1960, (5) 3: 198-200Read *JY, Oh *SJ, Lee *MS, *Park *JY, *Rye *JJ, Reads *KH. Preparation of fibre / core / wrapping of *nylon / PP *emisor of *fitoncida and the profile of release of *fitoncida. Fibres and Polymers . 2012; 13 (9). *DOI: 10.1007 / *s12221-012-1209-2*Cheng *WW, *Lin *CT, *Chu *FH, *Change *ST, *Wang *SY. Change the activities *neurofarmacológicas of the *fitoncidio freed of *Cryptomeria *japonica. *Journal *of *Wood *Science. February of 2009; 55 (1): 27-31.*Kawakami *K1, *Kawamoto M, *Nomura M, *Otani *H, *Nabika *T, *Gonda *T. Effects of the *fitoncidios in the arterial pressure under the stress of restriction in *SHRSP. *Clin *Exp *Pharmacol *Physiol. 2004 *Dec; 31 *Suppl 2: S27-8.li *Q, *Nakadai To, *Matsushima *H, *Miyazaki And, *Krensky *AM, *Kawada *T, *Morimoto *K. *Phytoncides (Wooden essential oils) induce the natural activity of the human murderous cells. *Immunopharmacol *Immunotoxicol.  2006; 28 (2): 319-33.*Abe *T, *Hisama M, *Tanimoto *S, *Shibayama *H, *Mihara And, *Nomura M. Antioxidant effects and antimicrobic activities of *fitoncida. *Biocontrol *Sci.  2008 Sea; 13 (1): 23-7.Fujimori *H, *Hisama M, *Shibayama *H, *Iwaki M. Effect of protection of the solution of *Phytoncide, in *fibroblastos *dérmicos normal humans against reactive species of oxygen. *J.*Oleo *Sci.  2009; 58 (8): 429-436.Fujimori *H, *Hisamab M, *Shibay *H, *Kawase To, *Iwaki M. Effects *Inhibidores of the Solution *Phytoncide in the *Biosíntesis of Melanin. *Biociencia, Biotechnology and Biochemical. 2010; 74 (5). *DOI: 10.1271 / *bbb.90700*Kang *SN, Kim , *Choi *J, *Park *K, *Goo *JH, *Sim *DS, et al. Comparison of the *fitoncidio with *sirolimus like a new drug candidate for the *stent *liberador of drugs.  *Biomateriales.  2015 Sea; 44: 1-10. *doi: 10.1016 / *j.*biomaterials.2014.12.015. *Epub 2015 5 January.*Zhang *S, *Jung *JH, Kim *HS, Kim *BY, Kim *IH. Influences of the supplementation *fitoncítica in the performance of growth, *digestibilidad of nutrients, profiles of blood, punctuations of diarrhoea and *microflora faecal in the *destete of pigs. Magazine Asia-*Australasia of Animal Sciences . 2012; 25 (9): 1309-1315. *doi: 10.5713 / ajas.2012.12170.li *Q1, *Morimoto *K, *Kobayashi M, *Inagaki *H, *Katsumata M, *Hirata And, *Hirata *K, *Suzuki *H, *Li *YJ, *Wakayama And, *Kawada *T, *Park *BJ, *Ohira *T, *Matsui @N, *Kagawa *T, *Miyazaki And, *Krensky *AM . Visit a forest, but no a city, increases the human activity natural murderer and the expression of proteins against the cancer. *Int *J  *Immunopathol *Pharmac *ol.  2008 January-March; 21 (1): 117-27.li *Q, *Kobayashi M, *Inagaki *H, *Hirata And, *Li *YJ, *Hirata *K, *Shimizu *T, *Suzuki *H, *Katsumata M, *Wakayama And, *Kawada *T, *Ohira *T, *Matsui @N, *Kagawa *T. It increases the excursion of a day to a forest park natural murderous activity human and the expression of proteins *anticancerígenas in masculine subjects. *J *Biol *Regul *Homeost *Agents.  2010 April to June; 24 (2): 157-65.li *Q. *Kobayashi M, *Wakayama And, *Inagaki *H, *Katsumata M, *Hirata And, *Hirata *K, *Shimizu *T, *Kawada *T, Park *BJ, *Ohira *T, *Kagawa *T, *Miyazaki And. Effect of *phytoncide of trees in the function of natural murderous cell human . *Int *J *Immunopathol *Pharmacol . 2009 *Oct-*Dic; 22 (4): 951-9.*Nam IS, *Uhm DC. Effects of the inhalation of *Phytoncides in the level of *cortisol *sérico and the stress of the life of university students.  *J *Korean *Acad *Adult  *Nurs . 2008 *Oct; 20 (5): 697-706. Korean.

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